Cespedes-Suarez J, Martin-Serrano Y,
Carballosa-Peña MR, Dager-Carballosa
DR. Response of patients with chronic
Hepatitis B in one year of treatment
with Major Autohemotherapy. J Ozone
School of Medicine, Valencia
World Federation of Ozone Therapy,
February 1, 2018
February 16, 2018
December 15, 2018
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Response of patients with chronic Hepatitis B in one year of treatment with Major Autohemotherapy
Javier Cespedes-Suarez, Yanisley Martin-Serrano, Maria Rosa Carballosa-Peña, Diana Rosa Dager-Carballosa
Cardiozono Medical Center, Luanda, Angola
Hepatitis B (HVB) is one of the most common infectious diseases in the
world. Its wide geographical distribution is a health problem, especially on
the African continent, with prevalence rate of 6.1% in the adult population.
Current treatment requires prolonged therapy (most cases for the rest of life)
with the aim of stopping viral replication, maintaining immunological stability,
preventing progression of liver disease and the most feared complications
such as cirrhosis and hepatic cancer.
There are multiple references for ozone therapy as an alternative in the
treatment of Hepatitis B, because of the known and demonstrated
antimicrobial and immune modulatory properties. With these promises, we
performed the present clinical study that included 28 patients with positive
diagnosis of chronic Hepatitis B, surface antigen (HVBs Ag) positive,
antibodies against surface antigen (HVBs) negative, viral load (HVB DNA)
and transaminases elevated. These patients with 1 year of evolution and
antiviral treatment were treated with major autohemotherapy with protocol of
15 sessions and maintenance every 15 days with an ozone concentration of
50 μg/ml, with an initial dose of 4,000 μg up to 12,000 μg.
We indicate Ag HVBs, Ac HVBs, HVB Viral Loading and transaminases
before starting treatment, at 15 days of completion and quarterly until the
year. The results showed negative of HBsAb tests from, a positive anti-
HBsAb test (Hepatitis B surface antibody), significant decrease of viral load
to undetectable values and normal values of the transaminases
demonstrating the functional recovery of the disease, associated with
favorable immunological response, providing a better quality of patients’
Keywords: Hepatitis B, Transaminases, Ozone therapy, Major Autohemotherapy, Surface antigen, Surface Antigen Antibody.
Hepatitis B is a liver infectious disease caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV),
which belongs to the family Hepadnaviridae (hepatotropic DNA virus) and is
characterized by hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation .
The development of serological tests for the different antigens and their
respective antibodies has revealed the worldwide distribution of HBV, with
extremely high infection rates. It is estimated that one-third of the world’s population, 2,000 million people have been infected by HBV, and of these,
about 350-400 million are chronic carriers. By 2015, 257 million people were
living with chronic infection, mainly affecting the African and Western Pacific
Region. Most of the deaths were due to chronic liver disease (720,000
cirrhosis) and primary liver cancer (470,000 hepatocellular carcinoma
There are now many reasons to approach the treatment of chronic hepatitis
from an etiological point of view, on the evidence that the evolution depends
on causative agent, replicative state, activity degree and the disease stage.
The treatment of chronic liver injury by B virus is based on the
etiopathogenic mechanisms that produce it, on the demonstration of the noncytopathic
effect of HBV and, therefore, on its origin due to an immune
specific reaction of the host mediated by activated cytotoxic T
With the development of medicine, antiviral treatment has improved the
prognosis of the disease and the quality of life of those affected. However,
there are also other natural treatments that perfectly complement the
pharmacological ones. Ozone therapy has become a useful therapy for the
treatment of many pathological processes such as hepatitis, probably due to
the viral inactivation by generated endoperoxides, as well as stimulation of
cytokines release. Medical ozone has antibacterial, antifungal and antivirus
effect. Ozone through its active metabolite is able to modulate the
immunological system in order to eliminate the virus [7,8].
Several scientific studies have postulated Ozone as an excellent modulator
of the immune system and its contribution to the recovery of viral diseases
such as hepatitis B, particularly by the effects on monocytes and T
lymphocytes, in addition to which the production of accompanied cytokines is
stimulated of an improvement of the oxygenation and the metabolism.
The action of ozone on the immune cell is compared with the effect caused
by mitogens. In cytokinetic induction of immunocompetent cells, CD4 + T
lymphocytes (helpers) activated by macrophages produce cytokines that
initiate intercellular communication in their role as messengers. IL-2,
released by these cells, is responsible for the activation and differentiation of
T cell and natural killer cells (NK) cells (spontaneous cytotoxic), to induce the
cytotoxicity of CD8 + T lymphocytes and to promote activation and
proliferation of B lymphocytes, hence these cells are considered a
fundamental pillar in the cell-mediated immune response .
Thus, CD4 + T lymphocytes, CD8 + T lymphocytes, macrophages,
neutrophils, eosinophils, NK cells and the activation of antibody-dependent
cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) are immune effector mechanisms to kill cells
infected by viruses, neoplastic cells or eliminate bacteria and
Another interesting aspect of ozone as an immunomodulator is during the
controlled «micro-oxidation» that occurs after administration, the «vaccine
effect”, which gives a favorable activation of antioxidant systems .
Given the widely recognized immune stimulatory effect of ozone therapy, the
aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of increased doses of
major autohemotherapy on the humoral, immunological and biochemical
response of chronic hepatitis B patients receiving also antiviral treatment.
Materials and methods
A retrospective longitudinal study was performed at the Cardiozono Medical
Center located in Luanda, Angola. Twenty-eight adult patients of both sexes,
who started treatment at the Medical Center in June 2016 until June 2017,
were referred from our Gastroenterology office / Infectology consult and
other Hospitals, diagnosed of chronic hepatitis B of one year of evolution.
Inclusion criteria: Patients with surface antigen (HBs) positive, antibodies
against surface antigen (Anti-HBs) negative, viral load (HVB DNA) and
Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (TGP), as well as Glutamic Oxaloacetic
Transaminase (TGO) elevated with retroviral treatment in 1 year of evolution.
Exclusion criteria: Pregnant women, patients with other chronic diseases,
autoimmune diseases, degenerative diseases, as well as patients with
Treatment Protocol: The patients received 15 sessions of major
autohemotherapy (one daily session). In each session we used a Germanmade
Promedic Humazon equipment (Humares GmbH, Bruchsal,
Germany), 3-way stopcock, epicranial needle 19 G, Sangiset (Humares
GmbH, Bruchsal, Germany) with capacity of 350 mL where we put 10 mL of
3.13 % sodium citrate to avoid blood clot during the procedure and other
The major autohemotherapy (Table 1) was performed at a concentration of
50 μg/mL in 100 m of blood; the initial dose of the therapy was 4000 μg (80
mL of ozone gas at 50 μg/mL concentration); we increased the dose by 2000
μg every 2 days until reaching a dose of 12,000 μg (240 mL of ozone gas at
50 μg/mL concentration), maintaining this dose as a maintenance dose
every 15 days throughout the year.
The parameters evaluated were: Ag HBs, Anti-HBs, HVB viral load and
transaminases, before starting the treatment, at 15 days of completion, at 6
months and 1 year.
We considered the qualitative result of the serological markers Ag HBs, Anti-
The real-time PCR reference values were taken into account as a
standardized method to determine the Viral Load with an analytical range of
40-20,000 IU / mL HBV DNA / Less than 1.6 – 7.3 log 10 IU / mL HVB DNA.
The values of biochemical markers (TGP) and (TGO) less than or equal to
40 ID/L were taken into account according to the reference values of the
laboratory where the tests were performed.
Statistical analysis: We used SPSS 19.0 statistic software and we
categorized the values using contingency tables utility and chi-square
analysis for the significance on the changes before and after the treatment.
Values of chi-square under 0,05 were considered significant.
Results and discussion
The anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (Ag HBs), formerly known as «Australian
antigen» is the most important serological marker, appears in the serum 1 to
10 weeks after acute exposure to HBV, before the onset of symptoms or
elevation of aminotransferases. Its persistence for more than 6 months
implies chronic infection and its loss is a desirable objective followed by the
appearance of Anti-HBs in the majority of patients .
Of the 28 patients with a positive HBsAg serological marker before starting
treatment, 100% were negativized per month, maintaining these results at 6
months and a year in the total sample (Table 2). This process suggests that
the immune response to autohemotherapy was favorable, although it is
unable to eradicate the virus, tends to decrease the progression of the
infection. It has to be considered that, the method used for this marker was
qualitative and only provides information on the total antibody response to
Anti-HBs. These results could be related to the use of ozone concentration
of 50 μg/mL in doses reaching 12,000 μg during the maintenance therapy
that was able to modulate the release of cytokines, determinant for
synthesis of these antibodies, coinciding with studies that have already
demonstrated that high ozone concentrations (50 to 80 μg/mL) are capable
of modulating the release of these cytokines, as expression of different
biological functions .
The goal of HBV therapy is the suppression of virus replication to prevent
disease progression; it should be aimed at maintaining the lowest possible
title of HBV DNA.
When analyzing the viral load behavior before starting the treatment, most of the patients (57.1%) presented viral load between 10,000-20,000 IU/mL.
At one month the viral load was undetectable in 100% of the patients,
maintaining this level during the year under treatment (Table 3). The results
obtained can be compared with similar previous work reported by Jiao XJ et
al in 2008 and Neronov in 2009 [14,15].
It is necessary to point out that, 15 days after the conclusion of ozone cycle
by major autohemotherapy, a good response of the immune system was
observed, maintained in a sustained way. This could be explained by the
cumulative effects of the active metabolites produced during the ozone
therapy that stimulates different pathways which ultimately result in an
Ozone is considered by several authors as a drug capable of modifying the
biological response by the multiplicity of action and the generation of
intermolecular signalizations [14,15,16].
The transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes present inside the
cells of our body, being responsible for the metabolism of some proteins.
They are present in several body cells and in great quantity in the
hepatocytes (liver cells). Whenever a cell that contains TGO or TGP suffers
an injury, these enzymes «pour» into the blood, increasing their blood
concentration. Therefore, it is easy to understand why liver diseases, which
cause hepatocyte injury, occur with elevated blood levels of them, as may
occur in the course of hepatitis.
In this study, the behavior of biochemical markers was analyzed (Table 4).
Before initiating treatment, 100% of the patients had elevated transaminase
levels (TGP and TGO) between 40-100 IU/L. At one month, 100% of the
sample had normal values (< 40 Uds/L), remaining at 6 months and one
year of treatment, which is closely related to the decrease in viral load
observed and the effects caused by ozone when stabilizing the cellular
Ozone therapy by major autohemotherapy has a stimulatory effect on the
humoral response to the surface antigen of the Hepatitis B virus, as well as
on the biochemical markers. The evaluation of the viral load, at different
times of the therapy, was a marker of effectiveness to evaluate the
persistence of the organism positive response to the ozone treatment by
major autohemotherapy. No side effects were found during the study.
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